JIP Database 2018

Japan Industrial Productivity Database 2018 (JIP Database 2018)

The Japan Industrial Productivity Database 2018 (JIP Database 2018) is the latest version of the JIP Database compiled in a collaborative effort between Hitotsubashi University as part of the "Service Sector Productivity in Japan" project and the JSPS program "Constructing Data Infrastructure for the Humanities and Social Sciences" on the one hand and RIETI under its East Asian Industrial Productivity Project within the Raising Industrial Firm Productivity Program on the other.

The JIP Database 2018 comprises, for the period from 1994 to 2015, various types of annual data necessary for estimating total factor productivity (TFP) in 100 industries covering Japan's economy as a whole, including capital service input indices and capital costs, quality-adjusted labor service input indices and labor costs, nominal and real output and intermediate inputs, as well as growth accounting results, including estimates of TFP growth rates.

The JIP 2018 is a fully revised version that contains a number of important changes from the JIP 2015. For example, (1) reflecting changes in the 2008SNA, it treats research and development expenditure as capital formation, and (2) reflects changes in the classification of industries from an activity (product) basis to one based on the industry to which an establishment belongs (as a result, the number of industries in Japan's economy as a whole changed from 108 to 100). For details of these changes, see the links below. As the control totals for the JIP 2018, the output data from the 2011SNA are used; however, since these data are available only from 1994 onward, the JIP 2018 also only covers the period from 1994 onward. The next release of the JIP, the JIP 2019, will attempt to extend the data backward as much as possible. Moreover, while the SNA have been revised as a result of the release of reaggregated data from the Monthly Labour Survey, this revision is not incorporated in the JIP 2018. This point will also be dealt with in the JIP 2019.

The JIP 2018 covers the years from 2012 to 2015, a period of recovery for the Japanese economy: led by the manufacturing sector, GDP growth rebounded as a result of the yen depreciation brought about by Abenomics. At the same time, this was a period in which employment of women and seniors increased substantially. These trends likely have shaped the course of industrial productivity in Japan in a variety of ways, and the JIP 2018 provides the data to examine the impact of these developments in detail.

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R-JIP Database 2017

On the Regional-level Japan Industrial Productivity (R-JIP) Database 2017

Japan's rural areas are experiencing depopulation and their populations are aging more rapidly than urban areas. Moreover, rural areas have also been more substantially affected by the outsourcing of manufacturing activities abroad. These developments have given rise to concerns about a widening of economic inequality among regions and the sustainability of local communities. The fundamental element underlying such economic differences is productivity gaps across regions.

The standard approach to measuring productivity currently used is the KLEMS approach, which tries to measure the output as well as inputs of factors of production (such as capital services and the quality of labor input) of each industry as accurately as possible to obtain total factor productivity (TFP). However, this approach is rarely used in the analysis of regional productivity differences, mainly because of a lack of readily available data necessary for such measurement.

Against this background, Hitotsubashi University's Global COE Hi-Stat Program, a predecessor of the SSPJ Program, started the Regional-level Japan Industrial Productivity (R-JIP) project in 2011 in collaboration with RIETI. The project released the first version of the R-JIP database in 2012. The R-JIP 2017 is the third revision of the database.

The R-JIP database compiles value-added output in current and constant prices, quality-adjusted labor input, and quality-adjusted capital input for 23 industries for all 47 prefectures. These data are constructed to add up to the control total of corresponding data in the national-level JIP database. Using these data, we calculate both differences in TFP levels across prefectures for each industry and the rate of change in TFP for each industry in each prefecture. In the R-JIP 2017, these data are available for every year from 1970 to 2012.

In order to simplify the task of compiling regional-level data, we consolidate the number of industries from over 100 in the national-level JIP to 23 in the R-JIP. Regarding output, only value-added output is available in the R-JIP, while both gross output and intermediate inputs are available in the JIP. Despite this data consolidation, our R-JIP database is unique in that it provides a regional-level dataset that allows productivity comparisons across prefectures taking differences in input quality into account.

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